Viewpoint Colour Issue 2

Welcome to our first issue of Viewpoint Colour, created by View Publications and FranklinTill Associates for all colour conscious industries. Offering you visual inspiration, design direction and a global perspective on colour, we see it as a sister magazine and perfect complement to our highly successful, Viewpoint Design magazine, which is dedicated to product innovation, and a logical follow-up to our colour forecasting book, PantoneView Colour Planner.
Why a magazine dedicated to colour? Colour is the single most powerful communication tool, influencing 50% – 85% of ideas and product purchase decisions. With 80% of human experience filtered through the eyes, visual cues are vital in getting a message across and nothing does this better than the thoughtful use of colour.
Our aim is to supply you with the critical and actionable colour intelligence you need to make your colour planning easier. With a focus on what’s really important, Viewpoint Colour will give you both a macro and local view on key colour stories, focusing both on the short term and the long term. We achieve that by working on two levels: short-term forecasting/orientation where we map out and analyse key upcoming colour direction 12-18 months ahead of the season; and long- term forecasting/orientation, what’s on the colour horizon three years from now.
In our opening issue, we have put ‘neo-nature’ at the core: a modern, organic and purposeful story using classic inspiration. Biomimicry has long since been a deep well of inspiration for designers and will continue so until the genetic code of Mother Nature has been cracked. We see green, with its sense of soothing continuity, as the zeitgeist of the moment.
Originally the Viewpoint magazines were born to take up branding and strategy questions. We still hold to that remit, but we have sought to broaden the appeal of these publications by first expanding our design coverage and now our colour intelligence. As ever, our wish is to put design and now colour into perspective and provide a voice of authority and integrity for all interests.
08 – 19 Colour News
Deep rporting into what is going on in the world of colour now/ Topics include: Patricia Urquiola’s portrait of a city; why pink is perfection for RedValentino; colourful conclusions from a decade of experimentation by Hella Jongerius, Gestalten; viewing history through a Kodachrome lens and more.
20-23 Design Context: Neo Nature
Humans are masters of adaptation, able to react to changing circumstances and innovate when faced with new challenges. We are witnessing the redefinition of nature and the evolution of a neo-natural world. In response, we are modifying our industries, attitudes and behaviours, and implementing new design methodologies that maximise our relationship with nature.
24 – 89 Colour Forecast 2017/18
Four major colour stories: ‘Engineering Nature’ reflecting our inherent connection to the natural world; ‘Alt. Farming’ recognising the inefficiency and wastefulness of current agricultural models; ‘Harvesting Waste’ reflecting how innovative designers are beginning to harvest postproduction and post-life waste streams; and ‘Future Mining’ based on the discovery and exploration of new raw materials that carry the legacy of industries past.
90 – 99  Visual Essay: Harvesting By Hand
Since 2012, photographer Hyung S Kim has immersed himself in taking pictures of the haenyeo female divers of Jeju, an island at the southern end of the Korean peninsula. For centuries these women, many now in their seventies and eighties, have dived to catch fish without the aid of breathing equipment. Hyung S Kim’s pictures capture the haenyeo as they emerge from diving, exhausted but exuding strength and power.
100 – 109 The Viewpoint Colour Interview: Crafting Colour with Ace & Jig
For Cary Vaughan and Jenna Wilson, colour is inseparable from texture and pattern – which has made Ace & Jig, their textile-based clothing line, an instant classic. And in a sea of minimalist design, Ace & Jig brings a fresh approach to colour, focusing less on chasing trends, and more on relaying a story and a feeling in each garment.
110 – 121 Processing Colour
Celebrate the poetry of process. The application of dye and pigment to surface becomes an experimental art. Embracing the uncontrollable, dynamic colour is
captured in an imprint. Though the process is repeated, the reaction is unpredictable, so each replicated object is nonetheless unique.
121-124 Pantone Colour of the Year
We look at the Pantone® Color of the Year 2017 – PANTONE 15-0343 Greenery and analyse with Leatrice Eiseman, executive director, Pantone Color Institute, the thinking behind the choice and what it means to the market.
122 – 128 Colour Influence: Red vs. Blue
When we are exposed to combined colour and light, our physiological state can also be affected. The blue and red spectrums in particular have been shown to affect our physical performance and wellbeing – and can even manipulate our internal body clocks.
133 – 139 A Question of Colour
Here we speak with leading artists, designers and manufacturers to discover their favourite colours of the moment and the reason behind their choices. From teal to shades of green, the answers are surprising and informative.
140 – 152 Colour Futures: Primary Signals
Here we look at the long term, three-year zeitgeist in colour. In complex times we look to a reassuring, restricted palette. We are enamoured of the uncompromising clarity of primary red, yellow, blue and secondary green. When lines are being drawn and issues of nationality take centre stage around the world, we reimagine identities at a local and global level.


The demise of suits started some time ago with the dramatic fall-off in the tie business (“real men don’t wear ties”), and has been exacerbated as career and office dress codes have been radically relaxed and men no longer need to wear suits regularly.
This summer, JP Morgan and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) revised their dress codes. In a memo to staff at the start of the summer, JP Morgan said that it had decided to allow employees to wear business-casual attire on almost all occasions. PwC beat them by a few weeks, moving to a more casual dress code that allows employees to wear jeans except at client meetings.
The stereotype image of the banker (pinstriped suits and braces) created in 1987 by the combination of Tom Wolfe’s Bonfire of the Vanities and Oliver Stone’s Wall Street, proved astonishingly durable. It is now less and less the reality. It’s no accident that in The Big Short, the Adam McKay film based on Michael Lewis’s book about the financial crisis, the bad bankers – who created the problem – wear slick suits and ties, while the outsider traders and hedge-fund managers – who realised that everything was about to come tumbling down and tried to call foul, and even fraud – are dressed in jeans, shorts, T-shirts and jackets.
As the world of tech and the power of Silicon Valley have risen to challenge Wall Street, so have dress-down uniforms. The Sun Valley/Herb Allen fleece, seen as a symbol of a no-frills approach to the world, is now associated with the private equity and financial world, as are Shinola watches, Red Wing boots and bracelets.
But the fall-off in the tailored suit market is not just about the financial world and office dress codes: it has to do with changing tastes, new lifestyles and evolving socio-economic platforms. In sum, it’s going through an identity crisis that companies are trying to resolve. On the catwalk, labels such as Balenciaga are deconstructing the suit’s silhouette by exaggerating its proportions; other brands are incorporating sportswear elements to mix and match with tailored elements for a still smart but definitely less formal approach.
Will it work or are we just writing an elegy to traditional menswear as we know it? Let’s see, but, shows or no shows, the crisis at Brioni and other heritage tailoring companies underlines the question facing everyone in the business: “What exactly does the modern man want to wear?”
Capital updates
As London celebrates the 40th anniversary of Punk, we take a look at how the landscape of the capital and the attitudes of its creatives are changing. London’s artistic communities are constantly evolving, with hubs shifting from area to area as international developers swoop in to accelerate gentrification.
Womenswear ready-to-wear designers
As the new Nobel Prize winner for Literature once famously sang, “The times they are a changing” and, indeed, change was the key message from the S/S 2017 RTW shows.
Womenswear designer fabrics, silhouettes and styling details
Overall, dressed up wins over dressed down; madcap centre stage looks are at the forefront, whilst discrete stays quietly in the wings. There’s an explosion of glamour in the air, but it wouldn’t be S/S 2017 if this wasn’t injected with a shot of street attitude.
Menswear designer messages
Clear themes are cast aside. Designers traverse boundaries and effortlessly weave together influences, picking up inspiration on their travels and cleverly synthesizing them into cool originals.
The latest in womenswear fabric collections
The textile and fashion industry seems to be working in two parallel universes at the same time. As we look at the last additions to the leading collections for A/W 17/18 and highlight new directions that we feel will carry on into S/S 2018, we see only dualities and a whole new set of rules coming into play.
Menswear fabric orientations
We can feel the season fragmenting, expanding out to new dimensions and contracting back to basics. New looks proliferate and ‘themes’, as such, seem to have less traction. It is like a free selection at work where you can choose a skin to live in of your own choice, free of the diktats of fashion.
Womenswear fabric & colour forecast
S/S 2018 will be a season where designers experiment like scientists to create highly interesting and unpredictable textiles. This will be achieved by combining unexpected fibres together and applying innovative finishing processes.
Menswear fabric & colour forecast
Geographical boundaries are explored this season as themes take on an eclectic, collected quality. A renewed interest in analogue material processes, and the look and feel of being touched by human hand, is carried throughout the season as textiles are explored as art.
Accessories & trimmings forecast and inspirations
The season is full of simplicity with accessories that are furiously romantic, bold with an ethnic chic, sportingly futuristic and glamorously techno and shiny.
Womenswear knitwear colours, yarns and styling
Dynamic motivators in the knitwear field are shifting their focus more and more towards developing innovative and remarkable textiles; silhouettes and construction then follow where the materiality leads them.
Menswear knitwear styling concepts
Summer is never an easy time for knitwear and S/S 2018 will be no exception, but we can, at least, detect a few areas where a new sweater could tempt the consumer to add something that isn’t a basic to their shopping bag.
Womenswear knitwear forecast
A quirky ragged vibe is mainlining the creative process with challenging results. It’s as if the idea of perfection doesn’t appeal any more and conventional ideas of ‘good taste’ are being flouted.
Lifestyle: lessons form the current rise in food culture
There are lessons to be learned from the current rise in food culture that we are witnessing. Our focus on food is no longer just about nourishing our own bodies; minimising waste and feeding the entire planet are equally important concerns that influence the choices we make.
Textile innovations and the latest/blue-sky thinking in textiles
How to meet the needs of today’s consumers while anticipating those of tomorrow? Designers are developing forward-thinking models to spearhead a new fashion view. Driven by environmental, social and economic awareness, they analyse the industry – material production, manufacturing and sales – to innovate.

Viewpoint #38

VIEWPOINT #38  Think Small
Political commentators, designers, and thinkers are heralding a future in which globalization is reversed, shifting the focus from global to local; and power of the few to the power of the people. From the increasing number of people choosing to set up their own small business rather than work for a giant corporation, to the burgeoning numbers of households committing to a more self-sufficient way of living, this is the up-rising of small against big. Issue 38 of Viewpoint Design explores the rise of the ‘Small Revolution’.
Driven in part by a burgeoning mistrust of the establishment and big business, and in part by a desire to maintain more autonomy over our own lives, the small revolution is a grassroots, bottom-up movement. Adam Lent, author of Small is Powerful writes ‘Political and social change is increasingly delivered by many small initiatives and campaigns rather than big parties. More than ever, people make their own decisions about how to live their lives rather than accepting the rulings of big religious and civil organisations.
This is not about running for the hills and reverting to a ‘back to basic’ or ‘grow your own’ mentality. We uncover the potential of digital technology to connect and empower communities to nurture efficient and effective ecosystems that operate locally, but are connected to share information and knowledge globally. Recognising that scale is sometimes the only viable option, we also uncover the importance of collective action, featuring some exciting examples of locally organized, self-directed coalitions.
We explore how digital communication and distributed manufacturing are strengthening localised peer-to-peer networks that are based on trust and mutual benefit. Distributed manufacturing with its smaller-scale, more focused approach not only allows makers more control over what they produce, but also gives consumers more stake, more input and more autonomy when they choose what to purchase. On a domestic scale we look at how designers are enabling individuals to create the home factory, ultimately leading to more self-sufficient lives. On a macro scale, we explore new models for self-sufficient cities that are locally productive but globally connected.
We report on how brands need to become enablers, facilitating learning experiences for a more empowered, nimble and self-sufficient consumer. How recognizing the local nuances of your offering and driving community engagement now needs to come to the fore, emphasizing the importance of re-connecting with a more localised identity, abandoning a one size-fits-all attitude.
The creative industry round-up featuring the new design, retail, lifestyle, material and technology stories that you need to gen up on
The Context
Each issue we report on The Big Idea, the current topic influencing the creative industries, exploring the core rationale for this thematic focus and the context behind the trend. This issue: THINK SMALL
The Evidence
We show how THINK SMALL, this issue’s Big Idea, is beginning to affect the creative industries, unpacked through cutting-edge case studies and the work of pioneers in the field
The Toolkit
From turning waste into new products to bringing craft and tech together to supporting making communities, these varied creatives, designers and facilitators are aiming for positive change. Their focused, distinctive initiatives punch above their weight in terms of impact. Super Local / Makery / Opendesk / Unfold / Dave Haakens / Makerversity
The Visual Essay
A visual essay featuring a series of images by Benjamin Grant, inspired by the Overview Effect – the sensation felt by astronauts when looking down at the earth from space.
The Opinion
Interviewing global leaders to get their take on The Big Idea — Frances Edgerley, cofounder, Assemble architecture collective / Joe Gebbia Cofounder and CPO, Airbnb / Jon Marshall, Cofounder and director, Map / Gianantonio Locatelli, founder, Museum of Shit
The Delivery
An in-depth analysis of the Fab City initiative — this issue’s Big Idea in action. The Fab City initiative combines cutting-edge technology and hands-on practical skills to create self-sufficient cities that can power, feed and fix themselves
The Translation
The design movements manifesting as a result of The Big Idea — how designers are embracing a new aesthetic with sustainability and conscience at its heart
Undercurrents: Lifestyle
Reporting on emerging behavioural and attitudinal lifestyle trends that are shaping the design world — No Ownership / Politics Rebranded / New Vegan Values / On The Move
Undercurrents: Design
A visual exploration of emerging design movements across the lifestyle industries and their influence on colour, shape and form
A rundown of the need-to-know new technologies, materials, approaches and working methods currently affecting the creative industries — Augmented Empathy / Designed by AI / Materials of the Anthropocene Era / Human Hair / Environmental Indicators
A directory of names that you should know. From photographers and illustrators to disruptive fashion designers and idea sculptors, we identify the idea-makers of today and tomorrow.  Atelier Biagetti / Kia Utzon-Frank / Convivial Studio / Alessandra Kila / Ka Wa Key / Ira Ivanova / Dawn Ng



Tides of change
There is growing sense of rebellion. Social media and online facades are being debunked by Millennial insta-celebs and savvy brands are opting for unfiltered, real, warts-and-all marketing campaigns. As a conscious generation comes of age, the focus of social media is shifting from personal gain to social good, with communities and campaigners using the internet as a tool for positive change.
Among a growing number of Millennials, we are seeing a shift in values and a desire for realness and non-conformity. Due to their rejection of “good taste”, we are going to see the rise of a new set of brands that are not afraid to alienate and challenge, do not conform, and set out to disrupt the status quo. Being different, being real and having an opinion seems to be the way ahead and that will certainly affect how fashion works.
We can already see this happening in the way fabrics, colours and styling are evolving for A/W 17/18. In our Womenswear Inspirations, we comment on how the dismantling of established frameworks creates space for alternative thinking: “Designers are greeting this opportunity with daring enthusiasm. The predictable notions of cut, shape, and fabric choice are being tested, along with the larger issues of gender and family, of place and belonging. It’s all up for grabs and the bold are embracing the challenge, moving and exploring these uncharted worlds. Turbulence shifts the landscape and where it will settle is not yet clear – but we are beginning to see the emergence of a brand new picture.”
Publisher’s View: Quo vadis?
Never has the fashion business been at such a crossroads, wherever you look, from the way we approach trends to the purpose of exhibitions and the very future of catwalk shows. It all adds up to exciting times. But, faced with economic uncertainty, in a world increasingly influenced by Millennials and Generation Z, the industry needs answers – and quickly.
Fibres & fabrics: Natural & precious
A/W 17/18 knitwear looks set to be warm, but very light and soft, with fine yarns in the finest raw materials, made with technical brilliance. But there were also more really big yarns than ever, some huge as if looking through a magnifying glass, but always light as if blown with air.
Haute Couture: A global perspective
It may be a far cry from the hallowed couture ateliers but the times they are a-changing and this season the Chambre Syndicale gave couture a global perspective, extending the schedule and opening the doors to an international roster of designers.
Menswear r-t-w designers: In & Out
Menswear feels strong and self-assured. For now, sales are up and growing, Creativity is bold and thrilling, but the formula of the twice-yearly shows routinely held in the same cities excites no one.
Womenswear inspirations: Face on
In a time of upheaval seemingly coming from all sides, political, structural and economic, there is an atmosphere of revolution in the air. The dismantling of established frameworks creates space for alternative thinking and the appetite for change is palpable. Designers are greeting this opportunity with daring enthusiasm
Womenswear colours: Alliances
In a time of disorder and confusion it becomes necessary to extract order from the turmoil and look quietly at the simplicity of pure colour. Our colour selection for this winter season remains bound to the materials that inspire us; their surfaces draw us in and charm us.
Womenswear styling: Fashion shifts
A new freedom emerges when definitions and established systems are challenged. This rebellion is taking shape in new and experimental design ideas, which defy notions of gender, age, market category and season.
Womenswear fabrics: Shock of the new
Innovation continues at a pace, but it is not so much the fabrics per se that stand out, rather the way they are pieced together in the final garment.
Womenswear trimmings and accessories
The season of hope is here, just when we need it! Designers fluctuate between the opportunities of the future, the hard lessons of today’s reality and the wonderful treasures of the past.
Casualwear colours and styling: Hybrids
We see a new approach to lifestyle, identity and fashion. Rules are broken and boundaries blurred, as people break free of traditional ways of thinking.
Menswear colours, styling and fabrics: All in the detail
This A/W 17/18 season is all about the detail. A maximalist approach is applied throughout, with a clear focus on textural fabric interest and hand finishing that leaves few surfaces appearing flat. Even in the cleaner themes, we see a concentration on texture, all be it more uniform in nature.
Women’s and menswear fabric forecast: Fit for purpose
Studying the latest graduate and designer collections, the word uniform buzzes. There has never been so much fusing, hybridization and collaging; but there also seems to be a growing need for a new set of rules for fashion.
Print design forecast: Uniformity
There is a trend for ‘belonging’, belonging to, a nation, a region, a religion, a village, a football team, a brotherhood, a language or political group, a gang or band, rebels and revolutionaries. We express it through our clothes.
Showcase: The game changers
Designers are setting new paradigms that work for them, as technology and ever-changing communication mean that archaic operational modes need to go and the industry needs to metamorphose for the future.

View2 #21

Welcome to our new issue of View2. We’ve made a few changes and we’re not afraid to shout about it, which is why we have called this issue Amplify! I’m sure you, our savvy readers, have no doubt noticed that it’s on the shelves a full six weeks earlier than usual and, as you navigate through the issue, you’ll find the layout is quite a bit different to before. So, I thought I should take a moment to explain why.
The fact of the matter is the world of fashion is changing and, within this, so is the world of casualwear. Once the casual market was chino and denim dominated, but this world is broadening to embrace our new lifestyle choices – especially when it comes to activewear and the growth of athleisure blending comfort, high performance and function fabrics in everyday casual and even formal dressing! Just think back to over five years ago when we saw the emergence of the ‘onesie’ – a celebrity phenomenon at first, but an overnight sensation, a revelation in fact… Suddenly sportswear was not about doing sport, it was about being comfortable (and I bet most of you secretly have one tucked away at home, for those loungy weekend moments).
Casualwear now encompasses a much wider group of fabric bases: think warp knits, 360-degree stretch denim you can do yoga in and the development of technical performance finishing techniques that can be applied across a vast range of fabric bases. It’s all about fabrics that react to our daily needs and enhance our quality of life. Just think how, if we can now dress smartly in our finest tweeds and worsted wools without feeling itchy and overheating if the sun suddenly comes out, or smelling a bit like a soggy dog if caught in a rainstorm, this is a much better place to be! Similarly, we can now wear sportswear to the workplace or casualwear that offers the movement and technical attributes only possible in sportswear in the past.
Garment silhouettes and styling directions now question the need for gender diversity. As we know, gender neutrality is a serious topic of discussion. Already many UK schools have introduced a gender-neutral uniform policy, which allows boys to wear skirts and girls to wear trousers, in order to recognise the rights of students who feel they don’t fit into the binary genders. This is just part of a UK government funded drive to support LGBT+ children in schools.
In this changing world, we are all now involving product categories and combinations that we never thought likely before. And all these different product categories work to their own timetables. Footwear, hardware and active sportswear need earlier information than, say, the general r-t-w casual cotton market. Hence, our decision to move everything forward to try and find a common denominator, where we all work together to satisfy a new market demand.
Not only that, we are all living in a new world of “see now, buy now” which is creating divisions and earthquakes in the world of r-t-w designers and catwalk shows and raising demands for earlier and earlier information.
As a result of all this movement, we have decided not to run our features in their usual, season-to-season running order. Instead, we have divided the magazine into product groups. Our three main areas remain ‘Denim’, ‘Casual’ and ‘Sport’, so we stay true to our history, but, now, you can easily tab to one section and find current reports and future concepts all in one place.
But please do not be alarmed. We have not gone completely genderless and season-less, because, of course, this is not how many businesses are operating…yet! We have just moved to a common ground, if one exists, in terms of gender, where styling details, colours etc. shown in womenswear can translate to menswear and vice versa, while we are delivering information and inspiration that can translate into a season that works for your market and timetable.
It’s a new dynamic and we feel very passionately about it. We hope you do too! Plus, of course, we continue with our much-loved regular features. Enjoy!
View2 #21 – Content
Street Style  
London/ Paris/ Tokyo/ New York/ Amsterdam/
Our trend watchers get out and about in some of our favourite cities to bring you a snapshot of the hottest looks being worn on the streets.
Hot Retail                  
London/ Paris/ Tokyo/ New York/ Singapore
Our Hot Retail section highlights a select few of the freshest new shops to visit when travelling the globe.
Denim Most Wanted          
Within these pages of indigo eye candy, our findings show that casual is king, the 501 is far from dead and over sizing is definitely not over! Stylish chino shapes, sporty jogger influences, relaxed slouchy pants and soft weaves all provide a casual approach. However, there is also a strong feminine presence.
Fabric Direction       
The new developments in texture, colour, detailing, handle and finishing that we present here are inspiring. From 3D textures to cracked leather effects and from bold contrast two-tone blocking, to a host of sporty features and detailing, it’s clear denim is no longer just about a fabric with which to make a good-looking jean!
Colour Direction     
We introduce five palettes that begin in monochrome and end in a riot of colour. They are not what they seem. One looks mechanical, but has a very human story to tell. Another looks feminine but explores a new masculinity. Leave your preconceptions at the door and look with fresh eyes!
We take you on a journey from a Neo Gothic mindset, to a Cyber world, to utopian utility, to a 1980s ‘Back in the Days’ block party, to 1970s theatrics, and then bring you back down to re-imagined natural landscapes for inspiration. The underlying message is that product, no matter how fashionable, should function and feel good.
Our fabrics sit harmoniously within each concept to show how to realise each look. We find super-future aesthetics that hold comfort at the fore, retro looks that have been adapted to perform, structural interest that challenges what we believe. In a nutshell, the weavers have been very busy creating, and it’s incredibly inspiring…
Trim Direction
Trim designs are taken to the next level, with outspoken and impeccable stories. The desire for strident ornamentation is merged with a revived interest in natural elements, innovative technologies and exquisite details.
Style Guide
Here we provide a simple, illustrated range plan of the women’s and men’s silhouettes that we feel most strongly for moving forward.
Our final casual feature presents a forecast of more directional inspiration, for those of you wanting to plan further ahead. With so little changing around us right now, we are allowing the unruly world of art to be our main driver and source of inspiration. Let’s allow misbehaviour to be the lead and catalyst for a change!
Here, we take a look at the most directional ways sport product is emerging on the streets. We find urban runners, a hip hybrid rock/sports mash up, sporty East and West Coast US clashes, a fresh ‘OG’ attitude, plus a whole host of cool details – many of which are potentially bubbling-up mainstream looks.
Fabric Direction
Since functional coatings and finishing treatments can often be added to a range of fabric bases, we use this section to present key directions and aesthetics together with composition and weight, allowing you to imagine the final end-use, purpose and performance requirements you need.
A ‘New Wave’ attitude to technique and technical experimentation sees cross-seasonal sportswear rebooted for true cross-functional appeal. The latest fabric technologies deliver a contemporary outlook that promotes individual storytelling without sacrificing the user experience – a seamless integration of style, substance and surprise.
Footwear Concepts
The recent Chinese fashion, design and art fairs were so brimming with talent that we decided to dedicate this footwear forecast entirely to the Asian market, featuring mostly Asian brands. The themes are not so different from the global trends we see continuously, but they are less dystopian and more optimistic and dynamic – a reflection of the new found possibilities in this society.
Accessories Concepts
Our concepts show a distinct contrast between a contemporary, functional aesthetic and richly textured, organic sources of inspiration. For the most part, trusted styles are updated in subtly oversized silhouettes, while our final theme injects a new level of utility through body-conscious statement pieces.
An interview with Jeff Griffin and our usual round up of all the best new websites and apps.